Downloadable! The notion of ‘self‐reliance’ describes the individual responsibility in Singapore context well. Include as much detail as possible. In other words, self‐reliance and family support may not be enough to address welfare needs, especially for low‐income groups such as the working poor and the elderly who worked for lower wages. The purchase of public housing requires a down‐payment from an individual in order for a household to own an apartment. In addition, a relatively small government with low tax rate in favour of firms/investors is feasible under these policies. While, public and private providers compete over the healthcare service market, the role of the public sector is important, given that 80 per cent of hospital care is provided by the public sector, whereas the private sector provides 20 per cent (Ministry of Health 2016a). Importantly, these welfare regimes are contextual and configured by historical, economic, political and social conditions. These have become institutions A ‘welfare state’ in its narrow sense is defined as income transfers, social assistance and social insurance (Esping‐Andersen 1990). Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use, Singapore's policy responses to ageing, inequality, and poverty: An assessment, The Social Protection Index: Assessing the Results for Asia and the Pacific, Employment‐based social protection in Singapore: Issues and prospects, Adding a basic pillar to the Central Provident Fund system: An actuarial analysis, Globalization and regionalization: Singapore's trade and FDI, Welfare developmentalism in Singapore and Malaysia, Transforming the Developmental Welfare State in East Asia, Changing welfare regimes in East and Southeast Asia: Crisis, change and challenge, The China syndrome: Local market effects of import competition in the United States, Department of Statistics and Ministry of Trade & Industry, Transformation of the Welfare State: The Silent Surrender of Public Responsibility, Productivist welfare capitalism: Social policy in East Asia, The Economic Growth of Singapore: Trade and Development in the Twentieth Century, Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore (IRAS), Equality, employment, and budgetary restraint: The trilemma of the service economy, The Pacific challenge: Confucian welfare states, New Perspectives on the Welfare State in Europe, Developments in East Asian welfare studies. People can enroll for MediShield if they are not older than 92 years old. Persons with disabilities can get subsidies to acquire, replace, upgrade or repair necessary assistive technology equipment and accessories (e.g. The elderly are also subsidized up to 60 per cent of the premium of the MediShield Life (Lim and Saxena 2015). In order to deal with the increasing health expenditure and the problem of an ageing population, a compulsory universal health insurance – MediShield Life – has been implemented since November 2015. However, the Singaporean welfare state is different from other cases in the East Asian welfare regime. S$8 billion has been allocated from the government budget to finance this policy (Ministry of Finance 2014). The Pioneer Generation Package is another initiative targeting the elderly ‘pioneer’ generation. Public housing can be considered as a policy instrument to improve housing conditions and therefore increases worker productivity (Chua 2005). When the PAP governed Singapore from 1959 onwards, the SIT was replaced in 1961 by a new statutory board – the Housing Development Board (HDB). Compared to the manufacturing sector, the productivity is likely to be lower in the service sector. As argued by Esping‐Andersen (1990), understanding the welfare states requires an examination beyond government social expenditure. However, the role of Medifund is limited, amounting to approximately 2.2 per cent of government health expenditure in 2014 (Ministry of Health 2016c). The CPF accounted for 17–27 per cent of the gross national saving between 1974 and 1985 (Huff 1994). See http://www.pmo.gov.sg/newsroom/prime‐minister‐lee‐hsien‐loongs‐national‐day‐rally‐2013‐english (accessed 5 July 2017). Policies under the ‘protective’ direction have been implemented, especially after 2011. Statistical Information on Social Welfare Services 2019 Page 9 Introduction This is the thirty-seventh issue of the annual Statistical Information on Social Welfare Services report prepared by the Department of Employment Affairs and Social Protection. From a recent report from the Asian Development Bank (ADB), social protection expenditure (i.e. Targeted education policy plays a significant role in economic growth. A majority of foreign‐owned firms accounted for over 75 per cent of the total outputs and 72 per cent of the value added in the manufacturing sector in 1990 (Huff 1994). Residents can use their savings in the CPF to buy public houses. The welfare institutions in the Singaporean welfare state, as an East Asian ‘productivist’ welfare regime, are designed to support economic growth. Family support/individual responsibility is also highlighted in public housing, given that the down‐payment and mortgage can be supported by the household's CPF savings. Singapore government resources had to be diverted from other social imperatives in order to build up the Singapore armed forces; today, the defence budget in Singapore is about one‐fifth of the government budget (Ministry of Finance 2016a). The article suggests that Singapore provides a good example of a developmentalist approach to social welfare that successfully harmonises economic and social objectives. Social Service Agencies (SSAs) can apply for a grant from the Ministry to carry out Cyclical Maintenance for their facilities. the corporate tax rate in Japan is about 30 per cent22 http://www.reuters.com/article/us‐japan‐economy‐tax‐idUSKBN0TV02D20151212 (accessed 18 May 2017).). In 1980, among all employees aged 15 and over, 20 per cent of male employees and 13.9 per cent of female employees were professional, managerial and technical workers. According to the CPF Act, all CPF reserves are invested in government securities (Ramesh and Asher 2000: 57). cleaners; Ministry of Manpower 2016b). The HDB's scope covered the entire Singapore island as the government commenced a scheme of land acquisition from private landowners in the rural areas of Singapore. The Singaporean welfare state was built at a time of a relatively young population and a strong manufacturing sector and, in particular, the rationale of individual responsibility by enabling people to work. East Asian welfare states are regarded as a welfare regime that supports ‘productivism’, in which social policies play a supportive role for economic policies. Lastly, a brief discussion of future prospects about the changes of the welfare regime in Singapore concludes the article. In addition, public housing provision encourages both labour supply and saving. Section B provides details of recipients of weekly Social Welfare Payments, insured persons and rates of payment. The report is divided into nine sections as follows: Section A provides details of expenditure. To facilitate public access to information about the annual report of the Social Welfare Department (SWD), SWD has updated its webpages. Subsidy rates vary with ward classes. Three sets of major initiatives have been established recently. For example, class C patients whose monthly income is below S$3,200 will be subsidized by 80 per cent, and high‐income class C patients whose monthly income is above S$5,200 will be subsidized by 65 per cent. For primary care, the private sector plays a more significant role compared with hospital care. While Korea and Taiwan initiated universal social insurances such as national health insurance and unemployment insurance in the 1990s (Croissant 2004; Peng and Wong 2010), the Central Provident Fund (CPF), a compulsory saving scheme, plays the central role in financing social expenditure in Singapore. Although Singapore's overall government social expenditure is smaller compared to some other countries, the role of the state in the social policy areas, with regard to the political and economic contexts, is significant. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Click here for COVID-19 FAQs (for families, support schemes, etc) Inward foreign direct investment reached 160 per cent of GDP between 2005 and 2007 (Chia 2015b). Second, by designing and implementing the interdependent welfare institutions, the state plays a more complicated role than making direct government social expenditure per se. Please enable scripts and reload this page. While the unemployment rate is low, matching the skills of older and low‐income workers to the demand of the labour market becomes important with changes in the demographic and labour market structure. Political, economic and social conditions should be considered. In addition, the monthly mortgage can also be paid from the CPF Ordinary account (CPF Board 2017). Next, the challenges, including changes in the labour market structure and ageing, are highlighted. Buyers have income ceilings in applying for a new HDB flat. Furthermore, the demand for long‐term care has been addressed. Fast and free shipping free returns cash on delivery available on eligible purchase. However, challenges remain for the evolving welfare state in Singapore. These agencies are members of the National Council of Social Service (NCSS) in Singapore. 1984; Lim 2015; Low 2004). However, recent dramatic social and economic challenges persist, including ageing and change of labour market structure. Singaporeans aged 40 and over will receive up to a 90 per cent course fee subsidy for courses funded by the workfare agency in the Singapore Workforce Development Agency under this scheme (SkillsFuture Singapore 2016). In comparison with MediShield, the newly initiated MediShield Life provides a more generous coverage and a lower co‐payment (table 2). First, labour market structure and outcomes are changing. It recognizes that we all have responsibilities to our families and to the community that sustains us' (MCYS 2010). The Deputy Prime Minister Tharman Shanmugaratnam in a speech referred to a shift to the left in PAP policy.99 See http://www.mof.gov.sg/news‐reader/articleid/1076/parentId/59/year/2013?category=Speeches (accessed 18 May 2017). The Caregivers Training Grant (CTG) helps caregivers to enhance their capabilities in caring for the physical and socio-emotional needs of persons with disabilities or the elderly. Furthermore, this article considers the policy responses in Singapore to the change of the economic and social conditions in evolving welfare states by reviewing recent developments of the country's social policies. Manufacturing/construction and service sectors’ share in employment. Learn more. The guiding principle for the designing of social welfare policies in Singapore is expressed in the charter of United Nations as promoting social welfare and better standards of life in larger freedom (ministry of social affairs, 1973). ‘Self‐reliance’ refers to ‘enabling a person to work, to provide for his family, to save for his rainy day and to do his best to build a better future. It was reported that 41 per cent of the working elderly earned less than 40 per cent of the median population work income in 2011, compared to 13 per cent in 1995.55 http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/cnainsider/ploughing‐on‐the‐faces‐and‐insecurities‐of‐singapore‐s‐elderly‐8824490 (accessed 18 May 2017). expenditure on social insurance, social assistance and labour market programmes) only accounted for approximately 3.5 per cent of GDP in Singapore in 2009, which was significantly lower than Japan (19.2 per cent) and Korea (7.9 per cent) (ADB 2013). This paper examines the changes in social welfare in Singapore using Labour Force Survey data. This rate is considerably higher compared with other East Asian economies. The mean years of schooling for non‐students aged 25 and over were 5.6 and 3.7 years for male and female, respectively. Under the the PAP government from 1959 onwards, the CPF's role has expanded to covering expenditures on housing, health and education. This increased to 40 per cent in the 2011 General Election. Public housing is a significant social and economic policy for two reasons. This housing grant will be allocated to the CPF account of the applicants (HDB 2016). Tertiary‐level education is now increasingly becoming important in the growth of the economy. Early Childhood and Development Agency; Councils under MSF Second, ageing is another significant structural change in recent years. The unemployment rate is still remarkably low (approximately 2 per cent in recent years); meanwhile, workers need to adapt to the changing economic structure, given that job opportunities in industries are decreasing significantly, and income in equality between skilled and unskilled labour is increasing. The public housing policy is helpful in providing shelter for workers, thereby raising productivity. Beginnings: The first report of the Singapore Department of Social Welfare, June to December 1946 (p. 1) [Microfilm: NL 28506]. Conversely, other studies argue that welfare states can respond to changes of economic and social conditions. Singapore emphasises what people see in other East Asian countries: on the one hand, the subordination of public welfare to economic growth and development and, on the other, reliance on the … In other words, the institutional arrangements for the social policies in Singapore may need to be understood in a broad context. Social workers from welfare organisations shared, in their personal capacity, their experience working within Singapore’s social welfare sector. The ratios of tax revenue and GDP in 1970 and 1980 were 14.8 per cent and 17.4 per cent, respectively. Furthermore, limited assistance for the unemployed has been provided in order to encourage labour participation (Schmidt 2008). In 2015, Singapore ranked first among 72 countries in the PISA test (OECD 2016). Universal health insurance is an example of a protective policy. Whether welfare states in East Asia can evolve with these changes remains uncertain. The rest of the article is arranged as follows. Hence the Singapore government was constrained by its method of currency issue to live within its budget. In the late 1960s, the manufacturing sector accounted for 7.2 per cent of GDP; however, in the 1980s, the manufacturing sector accounted for 23.9 per cent of GDP (Huff 1994). Singapore: Social Welfare Department. Higher coverage for both outpatient and inpatients is provided under the Pioneer Generation Package. In 1990 and 2003, the ratios of tax revenue and GDP were 15.5 per cent and 12.6 per cent, respectively (Low 2006). The share of population aged 65 and over. As defined by Kühner (2015) and the ADB (2013), social insurances and income protection programmes are considered ‘protective’. Welfare demands for government intervention in housing, healthcare, etc. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. From a recent survey, it was found that over 80 per cent resided in public housing, and 90 per cent of public housing residents owned their houses in 2015 (Department of Statistics and Ministry of Trade & Industry 2016), compared to approximately 29.4 per cent in the 1970s (Chia 2015a). … Public Welfare Services - Social Service Organizations - Associations & Organizations In other words, social policies are likely to be employed as a policy tool to promote economic growth. Korea, Japan, Republic of China [henceforth, Taiwan], and Hong Kong SAR [henceforth, Hong Kong]), the economic development in Singapore has reached the level of high‐income countries. In 2014, Singapore ranked 11th globally and 1st in Asia. education performance indicated in the Programme for International Student Assessment [PISA] and health outcomes in life expectancy), Singapore ranks remarkably high, even when compared with developed countries. It is not necessary to give your name or contact details. However, no redistribution through the fiscal system was permitted if it entailed the government going into monetary debt. People can have a monthly payout after the age of 65 when they have fulfilled the amount of surpluses in their CPF account as basic, full or enhanced retirement sums. Medisave, a health saving account under the CPF, can be used to cover health expenditures for individuals and household. Subsequently, major components of the Singaporean welfare state are discussed. In addition, the CPF is more than a compulsory saving scheme in the Singaporean welfare state, it is a critical part of many social policies (Lian 2008; Lim et al. Established in 1971, it is the national professional association that represents Social Workers in Singapore. Given the concern for political survival, the economic rationale plays a pivotal role in social policy‐making in Singapore. 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